0467.cC
海量文库 文档专家
当前位置:首页 >> >>

高中英语一轮复习语法第19讲:被动语态详解

免费学习资料 https://wenku.sanhao.com 囊括小初高九大学科(知识点/练习题/模拟卷/真 题卷/学霸笔记)
被动语态

语态是动词的一种形式,用来表示主语和谓语的关系。英语动词有两种语态——主动语态和 被动语态。在主动语态中,主语是动作的执行者;在被动语态中,主语是动作的承受者。主 动语态变为被动语态时,谓语部分要做相应的变化。

典型例句:主动句

1.The slaves built the Great Pyramids long time ago.奴隶们在很久以前修建了大金字塔。

主语 谓语

宾语

状语

典型例句:被动句

2.The Great Pyramids were built

(by the slaves) long time ago.

主语(原宾语) 谓语(形式变化) by+执行者(原主语) 状语(不变)

大金字塔在很久以前被(奴隶们)修建。

1.主动语态转换为被动语态
如果想熟练地将主动句转换为被动句,首先必须了解主动句的结构,清楚句子的成分,然后 遵循下列步骤进行转换。

①原主动语态中的宾语→转换为被动语态的主语

②原主动语态中的动词→改为被动形式,即“be+过去分词”
说明:第一步容易出错,要特别注意。这时 be 动词的人称和数要随着新的主语(原主动句 中的宾语)而变。在第二步中,be 动词的时态要与原来主动句的时态保持一致。be 动词后 面的过去分词就是原来主动句中的动词的过去分词。
三好网中高级教师 1 对 1,在线辅导,真师可靠!官方网站:www.sanhao.com 资料来源于网络,版权归原作者所有,不得商业转载;如有疑义请添加微信号:
dd2247443566,感谢支持!
1

③原主动语态中的主语→如果需要,就放在 by 后面

原主动语态中的主语,如有需要,就放在 by 后面,以宾格形式出现以指明动作的执行者(因 为 by 是介词,后需跟宾格作宾语)。如没有必要,可省略。

④原主动语态中的其他成分,如定语、状语→保持不变

主动句:Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1879.

主语

谓语

宾语 状语

托马斯·爱迪生在 1879 年发明了电灯泡。

被动句:The light bulb was invented (by Thomas Edison) in 1879.

主语(原宾语)谓语(形式变化)by+执行者(原主语)状语(不变)

电灯泡由托马斯·爱迪生发明于 1879 年。

①原主动句中的宾语 the light bulb 变为被动句中的主语。

②谓语动词的时态不变,均为一般过去时,它的形式由 invented 变为 was invented。

③原主动句中的主语,即动作 invented 的执行者 Thomas Edison,在被动句中可以由介词 by 引出,也可以省略。

④状语 in 1879 的位置不变。

主动句:Mr.Wang delivered this speech.王先生做了演讲。

主语 谓语 宾语

被动句:This speech was delivered

by Mr.Wang.这个演讲是王先生做的。

主语(原宾语)谓语(形式变化)by+执行者(原主语)

主动句:The ancient Greeks held the first Olympic Games 2790 years ago.

主语

谓语

宾语

状语

2

古希腊人于 2790 年前举办了第一届奥运会。 被动句:The first Olympic Games were held (by the ancient Greeks) 2790 years ago.
主语(原宾语)谓语(形式变化)by+执行者(原主语)状语(不变) 第一届奥运会(由古希腊人)举办于 2790 年前。

2.被动语态的形式

1.被动语态的一般形式

被动语态的一般形式是“助动词 be+过去分词”。人称、数、时态的变化,大都体现在第一个 助动词上。主动语态与被动语态的时态比较见下表。

时态

语态

主动语态

被动语态

一般现在时

动词原形或动词第三人称单数 am/is/are+过去分词

一般过去时

动词过去式

was/were+过去分词

一般将来时

shall/will+动词原形

shall/will be+过去分词

现在进行时

am/is/are+现在分词

am/is/are being+过去分词

过去进行时

was/were+现在分词

was/were being+过去分词

现在完成时

has/have+过去分词

has/have been+过去分词

过去完成时

had+过去分词

had been+过去分词

将来完成时

shall/will have+过去分词

shall/will have been+过去分词

过去将来时

should/would+动词原形

should/would be+过去分词

过去将来完成时 should/would have+过去分词 should/would have been+过去分词

3

将来进行时

shall/will be+现在分词



has/have been+现在分词

各种完成进行时 had been+现在分词



shall/will have been+现在分词

2.可用被动语态的时态 主语(名词或代词)+be 的各种形式+过去分词(动词的过去分词)

be 的各种形式

一般时态 进行时态 完成时态

现在

am

am being has been

is

is being have been

are

are being

过去

was

was being had been

were

were being

将来

shall be will be



shall have been



will have been

过去将来 should be



should have been

would be



would have been

1.一般现在时的被动语态
一般时态被动句中的 be 动词变化,应按被动句中新主语的人称和数变化。被动句的时态应 与主动句的时态保持一致。

主动句:Helen tidies up her room every day.海伦每天整理她的房间。

4

主语 谓语 宾语 状语

被动句:

(肯定句)Helen’s room is tidied up (by Helen) every day.海伦的房间每天被(她自己)整理。

主语

谓语 by+执行者 状语

(否定句)Helen’s room isn’t tidied up every day.

(疑问句)A:Is Helen’s room tidied up every day?

B:Yes,it is./No,it isn’t.

2.一般过去时的被动语态

主动句:The workers made the printer I bought yesterday last month.

主语 谓语 宾语

定语

状语

我昨天买的那台打印机是工人们上个月生产的。

被动句:

(肯定句)The printer I bought yesterday was made (by the workers) last month.

主语

定语

谓语 by+执行者 状语

我昨天买的那台打印机是(由工人们)上个月生产的。

(否定句)The printer I bought yesterday wasn’t made last month.

(疑问句)A:Was the printer I bought yesterday made last month?

B:Yes,it was./No,it wasn’t.

说明:比较一下主动句和被动句,被动句的表现形式更好一些。

3.一般将来时的被动语态

主动句:A repairman will repair his car tomorrow morning.

5

主语 谓语 宾语

状语

一个修理工明天上午将会来修理他的汽车。

比较:will+do 用于表示“将做,会做”。be going to+do 用于表示“(将来)准备做,打算做”。

被动句:

(肯定句)His car will be repaired (by a repairman) tomorrow morning.

主语

谓语

by+执行者

状语

他的汽车明天上午将会被(一个修理工)修理。

(否定句)His car will not/won’t be repaired tomorrow morning.

(疑问句)A:Will his car be repaired tomorrow morning?

B:Yes,it will./No,it won’t.

主动句:They are going to visit the China Millennium Monument.他们打算参观中华世纪坛。

主语

谓语

宾语

被动句:

(肯定句)The China Millennium Monument is going to be visited (by them).

主语

谓语

中华世纪坛将被(他们)参观。

重要:be 动词的人称和数要随着新主语的变化而变化。

(否定句)The China Millennium Monument isn’t going to be visited (by them).

(疑问句)A:Is the China Millennium Monument going to be visited (by them)?

B:Yes,it is./No,it isn’t.

4.现在进行时的被动语态

6

进行时的被动语态的谓语部分与一般时的被动语态谓语部分不同,应为“be+being+过去分 词(将主动语态中的现在分词改为过去分词)”。be 动词要随着新主语的人称、数变化,时态 跟主动句保持一致,采用现在进行时。

主动句:The teacher is telling Snow White now.老师正在讲《白雪公主》。

主语 谓语

宾语 状语

被动句:

(肯定句)Snow White is being told (by the teacher) now.《白雪公主》正被(老师)讲。

主语

谓语

by+执行者 状语

(否定句)Snow White isn’t being told now.

(疑问句)A:Is Snow White being told now?

B:Yes,it is./No,it isn’t.

5.过去进行时的被动语态

主动句:The teacher was telling Snow White when I got there.

主语

谓语

宾语

状语

当我到那里时,老师正在讲《白雪公主》。

被动句:

(肯定句)Snow White was being told (by the teacher) when I got there.

主语

谓语

by+执行者

状语

当我到那里时,《白雪公主》正在被(老师)讲。

(否定句)Snow White wasn’t being told when I got there.

(疑问句)A:Was Snow White being told when I got there?

7

B:Yes,it was./No,it wasn’t.

6.现在完成时的被动语态

完成时的被动语态与一般时的被动语态原则大致相同,只有谓语部分不同。谓语是由 “have/has+been+过去分词(即原主动句中的过去分词)”所组成。have,has 的采用则视被 动句中新主语的人称、数而定。

主动句:An unknown virus has just attacked my computer.

主语 谓语 状语

宾语

一种不知名的病毒刚刚侵袭了我的计算机。

被动句:

(肯定句)My computer has just been attacked (by an unknown virus).

主语 谓语 状语

by+执行者

我的计算机刚刚被(一种不知名的病毒)侵袭了。

(否定句)My computer hasn’t just been attacked.

(疑问句)A:Has your computer just been attacked?

B:Yes,it has./No,it hasn’t.

7.过去完成时的被动语态

主动句:They had built fifteen bridges by 2007.截至 2007 年,他们已经建成了 15 座大桥。

主语 谓语

宾语

状语

被动句:

(肯定句)Fifteen bridges had been built (by them) by 2007.

主语

谓语 by+执行者 状语

8

说明:by them 和 by 2007 意思不同,by 2007 是时间状语,不可以省略。

截至 2007 年,15 座大桥已经(被他们)建立起来了。

(否定句)Fifteen bridges hadn’t been built by 2007.

(疑问句)A:Had fifteen bridges been built by 2007?

B:Yes,they had./No,they hadn’t.

8.过去将来时的被动语态

主动句:Mother said she would punish the naughty boy this evening.

主语 谓语

宾语

状语

母亲说她今晚将惩罚那个淘气的男孩。

说明:本句是将宾语从句 she would punish the naughty boy this evening 变为被动语态。

被动句:

(肯定句)Mother said the naughty boy would be punished this evening (by her).

主语

谓语

宾语 by+执行者

母亲说那个淘气的男孩今晚将被(她)惩罚。

(否定句)Mother said the naughty boy wouldn’t be punished this evening.

9.将来完成时的被动语态

主动句:We shall/will have made ten thousand DVDs by the end of this month.

主语

谓语

宾语

状语

截至这个月底,我们将生产出一万台 DVD。

被动句:

(肯定句)Ten thousand DVDs will have been made (by us) by the end of this month.

9

主语

谓语 by+执行者

状语

截至这个月底,一万台 DVD 将被(我们)生产出来。

(否定句)Ten thousand DVDs won’t have been made by the end of this month.

(疑问句)A:Will ten thousand DVDs have been made by the end of this month?

B:Yes,they will./No,they won’t.

10.过去将来完成时的被动语态

主动句:He said he would have learned many words by 2012.

主语

谓语

宾语 状语

他说到 2012 年时他将要学会许多单词。

被动句:He said many words would have been learned (by him) by 2012.

主语

谓语

状语

他说到 2012 年时,许多单词将被(他)学会。

3.不可用被动语态的时态 完成进行时态和将来进行时态一般都没有被动语态,如果要用这两种时态表达被动语态的 意思,则可以用完成时态或一般时态。 1.完成进行时变为被动语态时,要用完成时表示 主动句:现在完成进行时

The builders have been building this skyscraper for two months.

主语

谓语

宾格

状语

建筑工人修建这幢摩天大楼已两个月了。

10

被动句:现在完成时

This skyscraper has been built for two months.这幢摩天大楼一直修建有两个月了。

主语

谓语

状语

注意:由于 be,being 和 been 三个词中的任何两个词都不可以用在一起,因此将来进行时 (shall/will be doing)和各种完成进行时(have/has/had been doing,shall/will have been doing)的被动语态几乎是不能用的。
主动句:将来完成进行时

We will have been using this book for three years by next June.

主语

谓语

宾语

状语

到明年 6 月,我们用这本书已经 3 年了。 被动句:将来完成时

The book will have been used for three years by next June.

主语

谓语

状语

到明年 6 月,这本书就用了 3 年了。 2.将来进行时变为被动语态时,要用一般将来时表示 主动句:将来进行时

You will be doing the experiment here at this time next Monday.

主语 谓语

宾语

状语

下周一的这个时候,你将正在这儿做实验。

被动句:一般将来时

The experiment will be done here at this time next Monday.

11

主语

谓语

状语

这个实验下周一的这个时候将在这儿做。

4.情态动词的被动语态 含有情态动词的句子变为被动语态时,在情态动词后面直接加上 be 动词即可。 其被动语态句型如下: 肯定句:主语+情态动词+be+过去分词…… 否定句:主语+情态动词+not+be+过去分词…… 疑问句:情态动词+主语+be+过去分词……? 主动句:We can design objects in 3D on the computer very easily.
我们可以非常方便地在电脑上设计三维物体。 被动句: (肯定句)Objects in 3D can be designed on the computer very easily. (否定句)Objects in 3D can’t be designed on the computer very easily. (疑问句)A:Can objects in 3D be designed on the computer very easily?
B:Yes,they can./No,they can’t. 主动句:You must hand in your homework this afternoon.
今天下午你必须交作业。 被动句: (肯定句)Your homework must be handed in this afternoon. (否定句)Your homework needn’t be handed in this afternoon.
12

(疑问句)A:Must my homework be handed in this afternoon? B:Yes,it must./No,it needn’t.
主动句:I have to do the job myself.我不得不自己做这份工作。 被动句: (肯定句)The job has to be done by myself. (否定句)The job hasn’t to be done by myself. (疑问句)A:Has the job to be done by myself?
B:Yes,it has to./No,it hasn’t to. 注意:对这句话的回答不能写为:(误)B:Yes,it has.(误)B:No,it hasn’t. 主动句:All of us ought to obey the rule.我们所有的人都应该遵守这项制度。 被动句: (肯定句)The rule ought to be obeyed (by all of us). (否定句)The rule ought not be obeyed (by all of us). (疑问句)A:Ought the rule to be obeyed (by all of us)?
B:Yes,it ought to./No,it oughtn’t to. 3.被动语态的使用场合 1.动作执行者不明显、不重要或不愿说出时 当不知道谁是动作的执行者,或没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者,或由于某些原因不愿意 说出动作的执行者时,需要用被动语态。 The toy are intended for children aged six and up. 那些玩具是为 6 岁及 6 岁以上的儿童设计的。
13

Nobody is allowed to enter the stadium without a ticket. 没有票任何人都不允许进入体育馆。 Construction of the bridge was completed in 2007.这座桥于 2007 年建成。 Mike has been in the workshop for three years,he was taught all the skills of sculpture. 迈克在这个作坊里呆了 3 年,他被传授了所有的雕刻技能。 Such sign can be seen in many places on freeway. 在高速公路上许多地方都可以看到这样的标志。 When he was asked to have a rest,he always smiled and said,“Thank you,but I’m not tired.” 当人们请他休息的时候,他总是笑笑说:“我并不累,谢谢。” Mr.Hu is said to be very good at Spanish,but he is never heard to speak a word of it. 据说胡先生西班牙语说得非常好,但从来没有人听他说过西班牙语。 It’s said there will be a basketball match this afternoon. 据说今天下午有一场篮球赛。 It’s reported that scientists have completed studies into natural plastic. 据报导科学家已经完成对天然塑胶的研究。 必背:
特殊的被动语态的固定句式 It is believed that...(大家相信) It has been decided that...(经决定) It is known that...(众所周知) It must be pointed out that...(必须指出) It is thought that...(大家认为) It is taken for granted that...(被视为理所当然的)
14

It’s said that...(据说)

It is reported that...(据报导)

2.突出或强调动作的承受者时

汉语句子中常常出现“被;为……所;受……”等表示被动的词语,这些词语主要用来突 出或强调动作的承受者,此时需要用被动语态。

A bit of important information was stolen.一些重要的资料被盗了。

A new village for the athletes will be built to the east of London. 一个为运动员建的新村将建在伦敦的东面。

With hard working,all the difficulties can be overcome. 只要努力奋斗,所有的困难都能被克服。

Headsets and gloves will be offered to you in the cinema. 在这家电影院,耳机和手套将会被提供给你们。

补充:“动词+双宾语”变为被动语态时,直接宾语和间接宾语均可用作被动句中的主语。 故此句还可表达为:You will be offered headsets and gloves in the cinema. This matter was often talked about.这件事被多次谈到。 必背:

在“动词+介词”构成的搭配中,若介词的宾语成为被动句的主语(如上例中的 matter) 时,介词(如上例中的 about)要保留在动词(如上例中的 talk)之后。此类搭配还有:

act on/upon(对……起作 用)

attend to(照料)

break into(破门而入)

deal with(应付) look after(照顾)

keep to(坚持) see through(看穿)

listen to(倾听) speak to(对……说话)

15

4.被动语态和系表结构的区别

1.综述

被动语态和系表结构都由“be+过去分词”构成,所以在运用时应注意它们的区别。被动语 态表示以主语为承受者的动作。系表结构表示主语的特点或所处的状态。

并非所有动词的过去分词都可以用作表语。在表示主语所处的状态或特点时,只有那些形 容词特征显著的过去分词才能作表语。

以下是一些具有形容词特征的过去分词:

amused(觉得有趣的)

astonished(惊愕的)

broken(坏了的)

closed(关着的)

completed(完成的)

confused(迷惑的)

crowded(拥挤的)

delighted(高兴的)

divorced(离了婚的)

drunk(喝醉的)

educated(受过教育的)

excited(兴奋的,激动的)

finished(完成的)

frightened(害怕的)

injured(受伤的)

interested(感兴趣的)

known(出名的)

married(已婚的)

painted(油漆了的)

pleased(高兴的)

retired(退休的)

satisfied(满意的)

shut(关闭的)

surprised(惊讶的)

tired(累的)

worried(担心的)

wounded(受伤的)

我们可以通过以下几种情况来判断句子是被动语态,还是系表结构。

2.根据状语来区别被动语态和系表结构

A.有时间状语和方式状语的,一般为被动语态,反之为系表结构。

The back is closed at 5:30 p.m.银行下午 5:30 关门。

(表动作,因为有时间状语 at 5:30 p.m.,是被动语态)

16

The back is closed/shut.银行关门了。(表状态,是系表结构) The report was written with great care.那篇报告是非常用心地写出来的。 (有方式状语 with great care,是被动语态) The report is well written.那篇报告写得好。(表特点,是系表结构) B.句末有“by+名词/代词”时,句子为被动语态,其中的名词或代词就是被动句动作的执 行者。反之,系表结构中不能跟“by+名词/代词”,但可与其他介词短语连用。 The problem was settled by the engineer.这个难题被这位工程师解决了。 (有 by+表示人的名词,所以是被动语态) He was surprised by the noise.吵闹声令他感到吃惊。 (有 by+抽象名词,所以是被动语态) Scott was much agitated by the news.斯科特听到消息后很焦虑。 (有 by+抽象名词,所以是被动语态) I am interested in baking bread.我对烤面包很感兴趣。(系表结构) 当有相应的形容词能说明状态时,不用分词而用形容词表示。 (正)The drawer is open.抽屉是开着的。(误)The drawer is opened. (正)The drawer is closed.抽屉是关着的。(误)The drawer is close. open 可作形容词或动词。close 作形容词只作“亲密的”讲,不表示“关着的”,只能用过 去分词 closed 表示“关着的”。 3.根据时态来区别被动语态和系表结构 A.如果是被动语态的句子,它的时态一般要与它相应的主动语态的句子一致(即主动语态 和被动语态互换时,保持原来的时态不变)。如果句子是系表结构,就不需要考虑时态是否 一致。
17

The bowl is broken.这只碗是破的。 (一般现在时的系表结构) →The bowl was broken by Allen.这只碗是艾伦打破的。 (一般过去时的被动语态,表示动作) →Allen broke the bowl.艾伦打破了这只碗。 (一般过去时的主动语态) B.一般情况下,系表结构只能用于一般现在时和一般过去时,不能用于其他时态。而被动 语态除了不用于完成进行时和将来进行时外,可用于其他任何时态。 A new building is being built in our city.我们的城市正在盖一座新大楼。 (时态为现在进行时,所以不可能是系表结构,而是被动语态。) The flowers will be planted next week.下周种花。 (时态为一般将来时,所以是被动语态。) 4.根据动词的种类来区分被动语态和系表结构 A.不及物动词没有被动语态,除非它后面跟介词或副词,所以“be+不及物动词的过去分 词”,一般不是被动语态,而是系表结构。 a.表示状态的动词 be gone 消失了 be returned 回来了 be risen 升起了 be retired 退休了 be fallen 落下了 Our little dog is returned.我们的小狗回来了。 The moon is risen.月亮升起来了。 补充:有些动词的过去分词实际上已变成了形容词,常用作表语,表示状态。这些动词有
18

gone,lost,known 等。 b.表示智力活动结果的动词 be known 有名的 be learned(有学问的,博学的) be educated(受过教育的) be mistaken 弄错的 c.表示心情、感觉的动词 be ashamed 觉得惭愧 be astonished 觉得惊讶 be interested(有兴趣的) be excited 兴奋的 You should be ashamed.你应该觉得羞愧。 Why are you so pleased?你为什么这么高兴? B.大部分及物动词都有被动语态,所以“be+及物动词的过去分词”一般不表示系表结构, 而是被动语态。 be admired 受到崇拜 be encouraged 受到鼓励,受到鼓舞 be loved 被爱戴,被喜爱 be praised 受到表扬 Napolon was admired by his soldiers.拿破仑被他的士兵所崇拜。 The cute girl is loved by all her friends.这个可爱的女孩受到她所有朋友的喜爱。 He was praised by his English teacher.他受到了他的英语老师的表扬。 例外:并非所有的及物动词都可用于被动语态,下列及物动词就不可用于被动语态: catch 赶上 hold 容纳 kill(time)消磨(时光) lack 缺少 meet 遇见 suit/fit 适合 (正)The moon can hold about twenty people.这个房间可以容纳约 20 个人。 (误)About twenty people can be held by the room.
19

5.学习被动语态的注意事项 1.主动语态不能变为被动语态的情况 1.当宾语是反身代词或相互代词时 He made himself a cup of coffee.他给自己煮了杯咖啡。 They help each other.他们互相帮助。 2.当谓语动词是表示状态的及物动词时 The salary can last him only a week.这工资只能维持他一周的生活。 Does the pair of shoes suit you?这双鞋子适合你吗? You should possess courage.你应该有勇气。 3.当宾语是不定式或动名词时 We all want to be teachers.我们都想当老师。 They enjoy playing cards in the evening.他们喜欢晚上玩牌。 4.当某些动词表示状态或结果时 The newcomer smiled his thanks.新来的人微笑表示感谢。 The milk tastes slightly sour.这牛奶味道有点儿酸了。 They remained good friends even though they entered different high schools. 他们虽进入不同的高中就读,但仍保持很好的朋友关系。 补充:表示状态或结果的动词:smile(以微笑表示,微笑着说),smell(闻起来),sound (听起来),taste(尝起来),look(看起来),seem(似乎),remain(仍然是),prove(证 明),appear(显得),fall(掉落)
20

5.当宾语表示数量、重量、大小、程度时 The jade weights one ton.这块玉石重一吨。 The coat cost fifty dollars in all.这件外套花了 50 美元。 6.不能变为被动语态的句型 句型“主语+have/get+宾语+过去分词”不能变为被动语态,因其本身具有被动含义。 (正)I had my tooth pulled yesterday.昨天我拔了一颗牙。/昨天我的一颗牙被拔了。
(暗指牙是被别人拔的) (误)I had my tooth to be pulled yesterday. 重要:由“动词+名词”构成的不可分割的动词短语也不能变为被动语态,如: keep one’s word 履行诺言 lost heart 灰心 make a face 做鬼脸
2.主动语态表示被动含义的用法 1.主动语态表示被动含义的几个固定句型 句型:be worth+doing sth. The novel is well worth reading.这篇小说很值得一读。 句型:have/get+sth./sb.+过去分词 have 作使役动词,没有被动语态,但是可以用“have+宾语+过去分词”表示“被动经验” 和“使役”。还需注意 get 与 have 的区别,get 是出自本身的意愿,而 have 则是出于无奈或 自愿。 I will have/get my bike repaired.我去修自行车。 (表示出于自愿,所以 have 和 get 都可以用。)
21

I had my watch stolen.我的手表被偷了。

(表示出于无奈,只可用 had,不可以用 got。)

句型:主语+want/nee/require+doing

这个句型相当于“主语+want/need/require+to be done”。

The baby wants/needs/requires examining.这个婴儿需要体检。

(这句话还可以表述为 The baby wants/needs/requires to be examined.)

The room needs/wants/requires cleaning.这间屋子需要打扫。

(这句话还可以表述为 The room needs/wants/requires to be cleaned.)

The machine wants/needs/requires repairing.这台机器需要修理。

(这句话还可以表述为 The machine wants/needs/requires to be repaired.)

句型:be+under/in+抽象名词

The car is under/in repair.那辆车正在被修理。

(这句话还可以表述为 The car is being repaired now.)

This kind of computer is in use.这种类型的计算机正在被使用。

(这句话还可以表述为 This kind o computer is being used.)

2.用主动形式表示被动含义的常用不及物动词

以下是一些用主动形式表示被动含义的动词。

clean(清洁) break(折断) burn(烧)

cook(烹饪)

cut(切)

drive(驾驶) feel(摸起来)

keep(保持)

last(持续)

lock(锁)

photograph(呈现在照片上) pull(拉)

22

read(读)

sell(卖)

strike(打)

tear(撕碎)

translate(翻译) wash(洗) wear(穿)

write(写)

这些动词作谓语时句子的主语一般是物,而且这些动词常和表示行为方式的状语连用,如 well,easily 等。

Potatoes cook slowly.马铃薯煮起来很慢。

The door doesn’t lock.这门锁不上。

The silk feels very soft.丝绸摸起来很滑。

This kind of printer sells well in Beijing.这种打印机在北京卖得好。

The cloth washes well.这种布耐洗。

The pen writes smoothly.这支钢笔写起来顺畅。

比较:含这类动词的句子也可以写成被动语态的句子,但含义不同。主动语态的句子表示 现状,被动语态的句子则侧重于某一动作的发生。

This essay doesn’t translate well.这篇文章不好译。

(指这篇文章本身不好翻译。)

This essay was not translated well.这篇文章译得不好。

(指出文章译得不好,而不管文章本身是否好译。)

3.用主动形式表示被动含义的一些不定式

A.there be 句型中的主语后跟不定式修饰时

There is a lot of housework to do at weekend.周末有许多家务要做。

B.不定式修饰 have 等动词的宾语,而句子的主语是不定式的逻辑主语时

I have many things to do.我有许多工作要做。

23

C.easy,hard,difficult 等性质形容词后跟不定式与句子的主语是逻辑上的动宾关系时

(正)The maths problem is difficult to work out.这道数学题很难算出来。

(误)The maths problem is hard to be worked out.

D.不定式修饰 buy,get,give 等动词的直接宾语,而间接宾语是不定式的逻辑主语时

(正)His mother bought him a bike to ride.他妈妈给他买了一辆自行车骑。

(误)His mother bought him a bike to be ridden.

4.少数动词的进行时有时有被动的含义

His works are printing.他的著作正在印刷中。

补充:work 这个单词可以用复数形式 works 来表示“(文学、艺术的)作品,著作”。

Our new school houses are building.我们的新校舍正在修建中。

Common Mistakes(注意!失分陷阱!)

陷阱例题①

All the preparations for the task __________,and we’re ready to start.【北京高考】

A.completed

B.complete

C.had been completed

D.have been completed

句意提示:对这项任务的一切准备工作已经就绪,我们准备开始工作了。

陷阱追击:句子的主语与谓语动词所表示的动作之间是动宾关系,谓语动词需用被动语 态。过去分词也可表示被动含义,但本句中的关键词 and 提示我们,and 前后是两个并列 的句子,因此不能用过去分词。另外,现在完成时表示过去所做的事对现在的影响;过去 完成时态通常有两个发生在过去的动作,形成先后对比。

正确解析:本题考查时态和语态。根据所提供的情景 and we’re ready to start(我们准备开 始)可知“一切准备工作已经就绪”,强调过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响,确定用现在

24

完成时态,且“准备工作被完成”,因此用被动语态,正确答案为 D。 陷阱例题②

A:What’s that noise? B:Oh,I forgot to tell you.The new machine __________.【浙江高考】

A.was tested

B.will be tested

C.is being tested

D.has been tested

句意提示:A:这是什么噪音?

B:哦,我忘了告诉你。新机器现在正在被测试。

陷阱追击:现在进行时的被动语态可以表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在被做的事情。一 般过去时的被动语态表示在过去某个时间或某段时间被做的动作,动作已经结束,跟现在 没联系。弄清这两种时态及语态所表示的含义,才不会误用。

正确解析:本题考察时态和语态。根据 What’s that noise 可知这个噪音现在存在着,应用进 行时,machine 作主语,与动词 test(测试)是动宾关系,因此用被动语态,正确答案为 C。
陷阱例题③

The wet weather will continue tomorrow,when a cold front __________ to arrive.【全国高考】

A.is expected

B.is expecting

C.expects

D.will be expected

句意提示:潮湿的天气将会持续到明天,届时冷锋有望来临。

陷阱追击:当主句用将来时,when 引导的时间状语从句要用一般现在时态代替将来时。这 是时间状语从句的时态和主句时态一致的重要用法,需特别记忆。学生容易将时间状语从 句中的时态选用为将来时态,因而误选 D。

25

正确解析:主句用了将来时,那么 when 引导的时间状语从句中则用一般现在时代替将来 时;此外,从句的主语是物,所以用被动语态。正确答案为 A。
Final Check(实力测验) 1.把下列句子变成被动语态或主动语态 1.My brother opens the windows every morning. _______________________________________________________________________________ 2.She didn’t clean the room this morning. _______________________________________________________________________________ 3.Do they speak English in America? _______________________________________________________________________________ 4.The actor was loved by the young people. _______________________________________________________________________________ 5.The clothes aren’t washed by her. _______________________________________________________________________________ 6.What was found by them? _______________________________________________________________________________ 7.Bob gave her an interesting book.(两种方法) _______________________________________________________________________________ 8.He bought his children some pencils. _______________________________________________________________________________
26

9.Everyone calls me Xiao Wang. _______________________________________________________________________________ 10.My father made me go there alone. _______________________________________________________________________________ 11.She can’t compose such fine music. _______________________________________________________________________________ 12.Everybody will know the truth soon. _______________________________________________________________________________ 13.He hasn’t received the letter. _______________________________________________________________________________ 14.Somebody was cleaning the room when I arrived. _______________________________________________________________________________ 15.We believed him to be a great scholar. _______________________________________________________________________________ 16.We often heard him sing. _______________________________________________________________________________ 2.用适当的介词填空 1.His name is known __________ everybody in this school. 2.The ground was covered __________ leaves. 3.The box was filled __________ apples. 4.Are you interested __________ music?
27

5.We were surprised __________ the news.

6.She was born __________ America.

7.This desk is made __________ wood.

8.Butter is made __________ milk.

9.I’m satisfied __________ what I did.

10.Is she married __________ the old man?

3.选择填空

1.A:Why does Ling Ling look so unhappy?

B:She has __________ by her classmate.

A.laughed

B.laughed at

C.been laughed

D.been laughed at

2.I promise that the matter will __________.

A.be taken care

B.be taken care of

C.take care

D.take care of

3.I __________ ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

A.gave

B.was given

C.was giving

D.had given

4.A:Have you moved into the new house?

B:Not yet.The rooms __________.

A.are being painted

B.are painting

C.are painted

D.are being painting

28

5.You’d __________ if the car went over the cliff.

A.killed

B.have killed

C.be killed

D.been killed

6.If city noises __________ from increasing,people __________ shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now.

A.are not kept;will have to

B.are not kept;have to

C.do not kept;will have to

D.do not keep;have to

7.I need one more stamp before my collection __________.

A.has completed

B.complete

C.has been completed

D.is completed

8.I have to go to work by taxi because my car __________ at the garage.

A.will be repaired

B.is repaired

C.is being repaired

D.has been repaired

9.I feel it is your husband who __________ for the spoiled child.

A.is to blame

B.is going to blame

C.is to be blamed

D.should blame

10.Sarah,hurry up.I’m afraid you can’t have time to __________ before the party.

A.get changed

B.get change

C.get changing

D.get to change

11.Every possible means __________,but none __________ successful.

A.has tried;has proved

B.tried;proves

29

C.has been tried;proves

D.is being tried;is proved

12.It __________ long before we __________ the result of the experiment.

A.will not be;will know

B.is;will know

C.will not be;know

D.is;know

4.用括号中动词或动词短语的适当形式填空

1.The apples __________ (taste) very sweet.

2.As we approached the work site,the workers were seen __________ (build) the new house.

3.You can’t use the computer,it __________ (break down).

4.Upon your graduation from school,how well will you __________ (prepare) for the job that lies ahead?

5.We could ask someone to do the work privately without __________ (know).

6.When he turned the corner,he found himself __________ (tail) by a man in black.

7.You __________ (expect) to finish the work in time.

8.It is to __________ (expect) that your health is __________ (suffer) since you’ve been working such long hours.

9.Old people must __________ (look after well).

10.Tom __________ (unemploy) since he lost his job three weeks ago.

11.He does not possess a bicycle,this one he uses __________ (belong) to Peter.

KEYS: 1.1.The windows are opened by my brother every morning.
30

2.The room wasn’t cleaned by her this morning. 3.Is English spoken (by them) in America? 4.The young people loved the actor. 5.She doesn’t wash the clothes. 6.What did they find? 7.She was given an interesting book by Bob./An interesting book was given to her by Bob. 8.Some pencils were bought for his children by him. 9.I am called Xiao Wang by everyone. 10.I was made to go there alone by my father. 11.Such fine music can’t be composed by her. 12.The truth will be known to everybody soon. 13.The letter hasn’t been received by him. 14.The room was being cleaned (by somebody) when I arrived. 15.He is believed to be a great scholar. 16.He was often heard to sing. 2.1.to 2.with 3.with 4.in 5.at 6.in 7.of 8.from 9.with 10.to 3.1-5 DBBAC 6-10 ADCAA 11-12 CC 解说:5.这个句子用虚拟语气来表达,表示与现在事实不符。从句为一般过去时,主句为 过去将来时。 4.1.taste 2.building 3.has broken down 4.be prepared 5.being known 6.tailed 7.are expected 8.be expected;suffering 9.be well looked after
31

10.has been unemployed 11.belongs
32


网站首页 | 网站地图
All rights reserved Powered by 0467资源网 0467.cc
copyright ©right 2014-2019。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。liunxqq@126.com