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感觉器: The Sensory Organs
感觉器 Sensory organs : receptor with its accessory apparatus
classification of receptor: 1、外感受器 exteroceptor 2、内感受器 enteroceptor 3、本体感受器 proprioceptor
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What are the receptors?
the structures which can receive stimuli from internal and external environments and turn them into nerve impulse

Chapter 1 Visual Organ
Section 1 the eyeball
I. External features ball- shaped ant. and post. poles
赤道Equator 眼轴: ocular axis 视轴: optic axis
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cornea

fibrous tunic

sclera

Iris

Wall of eyeball vascular tunic ciliary body

choroid

optic part : choroid part

retina

iridial part

blind part

ciliary part

Chamber of eye and aqueous humor

Contents

lens

Vitreous body

( I ) Walls of eyeball

External tunic Fibrous tunic

Cornea Sclera

Middle tunic Vascular tunic
Internal tunic retina

Iris Cilliary body Choroid
Iridial part part Ciliary part Choroid part

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fibrous tunic ( external tunic )
1. 角膜Cornea
anterior 1/6, transparent, more convexity, with rich nerve terminals, no blood vessels
2. 巩膜Sclera
posterior 5/6, tough, white in colour, opaque
巩膜静脉窦sinus venosus sclerae
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1、虹膜Iris 瞳孔pupil Contains sphincter pupillae
瞳孔括约肌(circular fibers) and dilator pupillae 瞳孔开 大肌 (radial fibers) Cornea and iris meet to form the iridocorneal angle 虹膜角膜角 Contains pigmental cells
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2. 睫状体 Cilliary body 睫状突 Ciliary processes: a series of some 60~80 projections, producing aqueous humor ciliary zonnule 睫状环 Ciliary ring
Ciliary m.:control the convexity of lens
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Sinus venosus sclerae Ciliary Muscle

Iridocorneal angle Dilator Pupillae Sphincter Pupillae

ciliary zonule Ciliary Processes Ciliary ring
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Lens

3. 脉络膜Choroid
Thin, rich in bloodvessels: supplies the wall of eyeball
Contains brown pigmented cells:creates a dark room
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The retina ( internal tunic )
Iridial part blind part
Ciliary part Choroid part optic part
Lines the choroid Composed of two layers:
An outer pigment cell layer Inner neural layer
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The neural layer consists of:
The cone and rod cell layer The bipolar cell layer The ganglion cell layer
Ganglion cells
Bipolar neurons Rod cells
Cone cells Pigment cell layer Up

视神经盘 Optic disc Physiological blind spot
黄斑 Macula lutea a small yellow spot, 3.5mm temporal to optic disc
中央凹 Fovea centralis central fovea of macula lutea where the visual acuity is highest
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(II) Contents of eyeball
眼房和房水 chambers of eye aqueous humor
晶状体 lens 玻璃体 vitreous body
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1. Chamber of eyeball
(1) 眼房 Chamber of eye
ant. and post. chambers
(2) 房水 Aqueous humor
a clear watery fluid that is produced by ciliary body fills chamber of eye
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Production and drainage of aqueous humor

Ciliary body produces aqueous humor
Iridocorneal angle

Post.

pupil

chamber

Ant. chamber

Space of iridocorneal angle

Sinus venosus sclerae

ophthalmic v.

Functions
? Helps focus light ? Helps maintain constant pressure in eyeball ? Helps nourish the lens and cornea

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2. 晶状体Lens
Transparent biconvex structure, covered by an elastic transparent capsule
Shape changed by the ciliary muscle
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3. 玻璃体Vitreous body
Consists of colorless, transparent jelly-like substance
Helps maintain the shape of eyeball , supports the retina, and play the role of refractive medium
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折光装置 refractive media of eye
Bend entering light waves and focus them on the retina
角膜 Cornea 房水 Aqueous humor 晶状体 Lens 玻璃体 Vitreous body
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Section 2 眼副器 Accessory organs of eye
一、眼睑 Eyelids 二、结膜 Conjunctiva 三、泪器 Lacrimal apparatus 四、眼球外肌 Ocular muscles
Connective tissue in the orbit
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I. 眼睑Eyelids
皮肤 Skin, extremely thin 皮下疏松结缔组织 Subcutaneous areola
tissue, loose and delicate 肌层 Muscular layer: orbicularis oculi
睑板Tarsus , formed by dense connective tissue in which the睑板腺tarsal glands embedded
睑结膜 palpebral conjunctiva
Function: to protect, open, and close eye
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睑板Tarsus
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II. 结膜Conjunctiva
Three parts 睑结膜 Palpebral conjunctiva
lining inner surface of eyelids
球结膜 Bulbar conjunctiva : lining
anterior part of sclera, up to corneal margin
结膜穹 Conjuntival fornix
(superior and inferior): line of reflection of bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva
结膜囊 Conjunctival sac
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III. 泪器 Lacrimal apparatus
(I) Lacrimal gland
Oval shape, occupies fossa for lacrimal gland
Secrets tears, which move across eyeball to medial angle
Protect and moisten the eyeball
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(II) 泪道 Lacrimal passages
1. 泪点 Lacrimal puncta 2. 泪小管 Lacrimal ductules 3. 泪囊 Lacrimal sac within fossa
for lacrimal sac
4. 鼻泪管 Nasolacrimal duct
opens into inf. nasal meatus
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四、眼球外肌Ocular muscles

Muscle

Action

Nerve supply

上睑提肌 levator 上提上睑 Raises upper eyelid Ⅲ palpebrae superioris

上直肌 Superior rectus

使瞳孔转向上内方 Turns Ⅲ eyeball superomedially

下直肌 Inferior

向下内 Turns eyeball



rectus

inferomedially

内直肌 Medial rectus 向内 Turns eyeball medially Ⅲ

外直肌 Lateral

向外Turns eyeball laterally Ⅵ

retus

上斜肌 Superior 向下外Turns eyeball



obliquus

inferolaterally

下斜肌 Inferior

向上外Turns eyeball



obliquus

superolaterally

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四、眼球外肌Ocular muscles
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V. 眶脂体与眶筋膜 adipose body of orbit
and sheath of eyeball
眼球筋膜鞘: Sheath of eyeball a thin membrane, which surrounds the eyeball from optic nerve to corneoscleral junction
眶脂体 Adipose body of orbit: lies between sheath of eyeball and the orbit
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section 3 blood vessels and nerves of eye
I. Ophthalmic artery 眼动脉
1、视网膜中央动脉 central artery of retina
Enters optic nerve, passes toward the optic disk and then fans out to supply the retina
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Four branches: superior and inferior nasal or temporal arterioles of retina
2、其它动脉
睫后长动脉 睫后短动脉
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II. 眼静脉 Ophthalmic vein
Superior ophthalmic vein
Inferior ophthalmic vein
III. 神经 nerves
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谢谢!


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