语法精析 难点突破区 一、过去分词作定语 过去分词有两个显著的特点，即：从时间上讲，表示动作已 经完成；从语态上讲，表示被动的概念，但是，如果是不及物动 词的过去分词形式，则只表示时间上的过去，而没有被动意义。
1．过去分词作定语的位置 (1)单个过去分词及由过去分词构成的复合形容词作定语时， 通常置于被修饰词之前，但修饰代词时，需要置于被修饰词之 后。如： a retired worker一位退休的工人 the given question给定的问题 qualified teachers合格的教师 everybody invited所有被邀请的人 注意：leave的过去分词left表示“剩余的，剩下”的意思时， 置于被修饰词之后。如：
I have only one coin left. 我只剩下一个硬币了。
(2)过去分词短语作定语要后置，放在被修饰词之后。如： the languages spoken in Germany在德国使用的语言 the book written in simple English用浅显的英语写成的书
过去分词短语作后置定语时，如果和中心词之间有逗号，则 其可以转换成非限制性定语从句；若无逗号，则其可以转换成限 制性定语从句。
I want to take away the book shown to me yesterday. ＝I want to take away the book which was shown to me yesterday. 我想带走(你)昨天给我看的那本书。
The Olympic Games, first held in 776 BC, did not include women competitors until 1912.
＝The Olympic Games, which were first held in 776 BC, did not
include women competitors until 1912. 于公元前776年首次举办的奥运会直到1912年才允许女运动员
3．表示情感的动词的过去分词 有些表示情感或心理状态的过去分词已经完全形容词化，常 见的这类过去分词有：disappointed(失望的)，moved(感动的)， interested(感兴趣的)，surprised(感到惊讶的)，shocked(震惊的，震 撼的)，puzzled(迷惑不解的)，frightened(受惊吓的)等。如：a frightened girl一个受惊吓的女孩。
4．不及物动词的过去分词 —些不及物动词也有过去分词形式，由于不及物动词不可以 直接跟宾语，所以不及物动词的过去分词作定语时只表示动作的 完成，而没有被动语态的意义。如： newly-arrived passengers刚到的旅客 fallen leaves落叶 5．过去分词常和形容词、副词或名词构成复合形容词作定语
The newly-built hotel was burnt in the fire. 新建的宾馆在火灾中被烧掉。
二、用于一般过去时态的时间状语 1．一般过去时表示在过去一段时间内，经常性或习惯性的动 作。这时常与always, usually, often, sometimes, never等时间状语连 用。
When I was a child, I often played football in the street. 当我是个孩子时，我经常在街上踢足球。
I always got up late, and never had enough time for breakfast. 我总是起床很晚，从来没有足够的时间吃早饭。 2．一般过去时表示在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在 的状态。时间状语有yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。
Where did you go just now? 你刚才去哪里了？
3．一般过去时也可与today, this week, in the old days, during ..., when引导的时间状语从句，recently, until ..., since＋时间点等时间 状语连用。
They recently moved to a new house. 不久前他们搬进了新居。
During his middle school years, he often went for the competition. 他在中学时代经常参加竞赛。
I saw him today. 我今天见过他。
新思维 随堂自测 Ⅰ.用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空 1．Prices of daily goods bought (buy) online are lower than store
prices. 2．The glass of water is too hot. I prefer some cold boiled (boil)
water. 3．From your disappointed (disappoint) voice, I have to say that is
a piece of disappointing (disappoint) news. 4．A letter posted (post) yesterday will probably reach her
5．The lost (lose) boy was last seen playing near the East Lake. 6．Suddenly there appeared a young girl dressed (dress) in white. 7．He caught (catch) a bad cold last week. 8．We held (hold) a basketball match the day before yesterday. 9．I woke (wake) up and found (find) it was eight o'clock. 10．She got (get) up early when she was young.
Ⅱ.语法填空 阅读下面材料，在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内 单词的正确形式。
I thought that I had great skills in d_e_a1li_n_g (deal) with kids, so I applied for a job to teach kids. The day of my interview was also my first day of work.My first mistake led to my first lesson.Don't try to make f_ri_e2n_d_s (friend) with managers, but be respectful. After going through some work with __3_a_ couple of kids I learned I was not as good as I thought I was, and it was _b_et4t_er_ (good) to ask for help than do what you thought was right.
A few days after work feeling pressured to do a good job, I found repetition _m_a5d_e_ (make) it more comfortable. It wasn't long b_e_f6o_r_e I learned how to develop respectful relationships with my bosses and what tone of voice to use with kids. I started sounding more confident re_a_li7z_in_g(realize) that the more confident you sound, the more _it_8__ seems that you know what you are doing.
What surprised me most after a few months was how little money I had spent. Money from working long hours seemed to be more valuable to me than money _g_i9v_en_ (give) by my parents. I kept it firmly in my hands and suddenly shopping was a _t_o1ta0l_ly_ (total) different experience. The cost of items translated into how many hours I needed to work to pay for it.
【文章大意】 利用你的假期闲暇时间，找一份临时工作， 不仅能增加你的收入，而且能锻炼你的性格，使你成为一个独立 性更强的人。
解析： 1．dealing 考查动词形式。此句中的in是介词，其后接动词 时需用动名词形式，故用dealing。 2．friends 考查名词。表达“与某人交朋友”需用make friends with。 3．a 考查冠词。此处表达“几个孩子”之意，需用a couple of。 4．better 考查比较级。后面的than暗示了此处用比较级， good的比较级形式是better。
5．made 考查时态。本文是叙述过去的事情，需用一般过去 时，故用made。
6．before 考查固定句型。此处表达不久就学会了如何处理 跟老板的关系，故用before, it was not long before ...表示“不久 就……”。误解分析：如果不结合语境，很容易错误写出until答 案，误认为是not ... until ...搭配。
7．realizing 现在分词短语作伴随状语。 8．it 考查代词。It seems that ...为固定句型。 9．given 考查非谓语动词。money与give之间在逻辑上是被 动关系，需用过去分词表达被动含义，此处given by my parents作 后置定语，修饰money。 10．totally 考查副词。其后的different是形容词，需用副词 修饰。