2012 高考英语：阅读理解课堂练学案（24） Passage Twenty-six (Sensory Evaluation of Food)
A Polish proverb claims that fish, to taste right, should three times—in water, in butter and in wine. The early efforts of the basic scientists in the food industry were directed at improving the preparation, preservation, and distribution of safe and nutritious food. Our memories of certain foodstuffs eaten during the World War II suggest that, although these might have been safe and nutritious, they certainly did not taste right nor were they particularly appetizing in appearance or smell. This neglect of the sensory appeal of foods is happily becoming a thing of the past. Bow, in the book “Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food,” the authors hope that it will be useful to food technologists in industry and also to others engaged in research into problem of sensory evaluation of foods. An attempt has clearly been make to collect every possible piece of information, which might be useful, more than one thousand five hundred references being quoted. As a result, the book seems at first sight to be an exhaustive and critically useful review of the literature. This it certainly is, but this is by no means is its only achievement, for there are many suggestions for further lines of research, and the discursive passages are crisply provocative of new ideas and new ways of looking at established findings.
Of particular interest is the weight given to the psychological aspects of perception, both objectively and subjectively. The relation between stimuli and perception is well covered, and includes a valuable discussion of the uses and disadvantages of the Weber fraction of differences. It is interesting to find that in spite of many attempts to separate and define the modalities of taste, nothing better has been achieved than the familiar classification into sweet, sour salty and bitter. Nor is there as yet any clear-cut evidence of the physiological nature of the taste stimulus. With regard to smell, systems of classification are of little value because of the extraordinary sensitivity of the nose and because the response to the stimulus is so subjective. The authors suggest that a classification based on the size, shape and electronic status of the molecule involved merits further investigation, as does the theoretical proposition that weak physical binding of the stimulant molecule to he receptor site is a necessary part of the mechanism of stimulation.
Apart from taste and smell, there are many other components of perception of the sensations from food in the mouth. The basic modalities of pain, cold, warmth and touch, together with vibration sense, discrimination and localization may all play a part, as, of course, does auditory reception of bone-conducted vibratory stimuli from the teeth when eating crisp or crunchy foods. In this connection the authors rightly point out that this type of stimulus requires much more investigation, suggesting that a start might be made by using subjects afflicted with various forms of deafness. It is well-known that extraneous noise may alter discrimination, and the attention of the authors is directed to the work of Prof. H. J. Eysenck on the “stimulus hunger” of extroverts and the “stimulus avoidance” of introverts.
1. The reviewer uses a Polish proverb at the beginning of the article
in order to
[A]. introduce, in an interesting manner, the discussion of food.
[B]. show the connection between food and nationality of food.
[C]. indicate that there are various ways to prepare food.
[D]. impress upon the reader the food value of fish.
2. The reviewers appraisal of “Principles of Sensory Evaluation of
Food” is one of
[A]. mixed feelings.
[B] . indifference
[C]. high praise.
[D]. faint praise.
3. The writer of the article does not express the view, either directly
or by implication, that
[A]. sharply defined classifications of taste are needed.
[B]. more research should be done regarding the molecular constituency
[C]. food values are objectively determined by an expert “smeller”.
[D]. temperature is an important factor in the value of food.
4. The authors of the book suggest the use of deaf subject because
[A]. deaf people are generally introversive.
[B]. the auditory sense is an important factor in food evaluation.
[C]. they are more fastidious in their choice of foods.
[D]. All types of subjects should be used.
Vocabulary 1. preservation 2. sensory appeal 3. be provocative of 4. exhaustive 5. discursive 6. be provocative of 7. crisp 8. perception 9. modality
modality of taste 10. discrimination 11. localization 12. merit 13. crunchy 14. extraneous 15. extrovert 16. introvert
保鲜，保存 感官的魅力 脱颖而出 详尽的，无遗漏的 推论的 引起……争论/兴趣等的 有力的，有劲的 感觉，知觉，直觉 方式 （味）感觉到
鉴别力 地区性，定位 值得……，有……价值 嘎吱作响的 外部的 外向性格的人 内项性格的人
难句译注 1. although these might have been safe and nutritious, they certainly did not taste right nor were they particularly appetizing in appearance or smell. [结构简析] in appearance or smell 应译成：色或香。 [参考译文] 虽然这些饭菜可能是安全又有营养，但是肯定味不正， 特别是在色，香上难以增进食欲。 2. This it certainly is, but this is by no means is its only achievement, for there are many suggestions for further lines of research, and the discursive passages are crisply provocative of new ideas and new ways of looking at established findings. [结构简析] 复合句。This 指前一句内容：书既详细又是对有关食品 学的文字做了十分有用的评论……。Be provocative of 引起……争论 或兴趣。 [参考译文] 确实如此，可是这并不是书的唯一成就，因为书内有许 多关于进一步研究范围的建议。推论性篇章及能令人非常感兴趣的看 待现存成果的新观点和新方法。
3. The relation between stimuli and perception is well covered, and includes a valuable discussion of the uses and disadvantages of the Weber fraction of differences. Weber fraction 为 Ernest Heinrich Weber 所著，他生于 1795 年，死与 1878，是德国生理学家。 [参考译文] 书中详细论及刺激和感觉的关系。还包括了一篇很有价 值的讨论文章：谈论威伯分数在评价差异上的缺点和实用性。
对象，书的篇幅到内涵具体涉及片谈起，从主观到客观论证，采用例 子和对比说明。第一段全面介绍，点出此书不同于过去的书。它们都 把重点放在改善准备，保养和销售上。此书信息多，引证参考资料多， 对今后研究有新建议； 对已有成果有新关点。第二段，从客观到主 观的论述味觉，嗅觉并加以对比。第三段从众多其它感觉中，以听觉 为重点论证。
1. A. 以有趣的方式开始介绍食品讨论。文章一开始，评者就用
B. 表明 食品和国籍 的关系。
C. 表 明有各种 准备食 品的方
法。 D. 加深读者对鱼的价值的影响，三项都不对。
2. C. 评价高。评论者当然对此书评价极高，这是序言的必然途
3. C. 食品价值由专家的嗅觉客观决定。这和第二段后半段的内
A. 需要明确无误的味觉分类。酸，咸，辣就是味觉的分类。 B. 有
研究。 D. 温度是食品评价中的一个因素。文内只在第三段提到了
4. B. 听觉在食品评价中是一个重要因素。这在第三段内提到。
改变分辨力和注意力。“这说明 B. 听觉在食品评价中起着重要作用。