U NIT 3
Grammar and usage
1. We should read English aloud in the morning.
2. Would you please lend me your dictionary?
1. I find it a pleasure to be here.
2. We must work hard to make our country stronger and
3. My teacher often encourages me to speak loudly in class to make others hear me.
4. The soldiers stand still, with a gun in their hands.
5. She felt her heart beating with fear when she noticed herself followed by a stranger.
6. I am used to sleeping with lights off/on.
A noun phrase An adjective To-infinitive Bare infinitive Prepositional phrases An adverb Present participle( v-ing) Past participle (v-ed)
1. a huge success 2. to be very hard-working 3. very helpful 4. kind and clever 5. really hot 6. crazy 7. cool 8. at home
人生的精彩在于挑战！ Challenge makes one’s life colorful and successful !
connect the coordinate subject, verb, object and adverbial in sentences
Either Ann or Jane should have arrived by now. Neither the museum nor the site itself interested her.
People either tried to escape or stayed in their houses. They neither told me the location nor showed me the map.
We could choose to eat either noodles or rice. I ate neither the noodles nor rice.
They are going to the museum either today or tomorrow. They went there neither by train nor by air.
1.One complained that the room was neither clean nor very comfortable.
2.Did you notice that neither Marco nor Peter came to the talk?
3.We can either go to the Dragon Restaurant or the Phoenix Restaurant.
What does subject-verb agreement mean? It means choosing the correct singular or plural verb after the subject.
1. Either Tim or his brothers __h_a_v_e___ (have) to water the trees every other day.
2. Neither you nor your father __h_a_s___ (have) enough money for the big house.
singular or uncountable (n.)
a phrase or clause
a plural (n.)
2 or more words (phrases)
1. Thirty dollars___is___ (be) too high for the book. 2. He said three weeks __w_a_s___ (be) allowed for
preparation. 3. 20 kilometres __w_a_s__ (be) covered in a single
night. 4. Harry Potter __is___ (be) popular with the
children. 5. The United States __c_o_n_s_i_s_ts___ (consist) of 50
1.Finding enough parking places _w__a_s_ a problem.
2.To say it ___i_s__one thing , to do it is another.
3.When we will come __h_a_s__not been decided yet.
4.When and where we will have the meeting __h_a_s__not been decided.
5. That he is ill _w_o_r_r_ie_s__his mother a lot . (worry)
2.当and 连接几个单数主语，并分别由 each, every, no, many a 等词修饰时， 谓语动词要用单数。
each…and each…,every…and every…, no…and no…, many a…and many a….
Many a doctor and many a nurse is busy with their work
1.A journalist and author __li_v_e_s__ (live) in the house.
2.The doctor and professor __i_s___ (be) coming at once.
3.A knife and fork __is_ (be) on the table. 4.Bread and butter ____is____ (be) a kind of
delicious food. 5.A boy and a girl ___a_r_e__ (be) playing
together. 6.Each teacher and each student __i_s__ (be)
invited to the party. 7.No boy and no girl __is__ (be) in the
anyone, anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, someone, somebody, something, no one, nobody, nothing, each, each one, either, neither, one, the other 作主语,谓语动词用单数.
each/neither/either of + n.(pl.) every one of /any one of /each one of +n.(pl.) 作主语是谓语动词用单数
none of + n.(pl.)作主语是谓语动词用单数或复数 皆可
(1) Each of us __h__a_s____ (have) a new book . (2) Somebody ___is____ (be) waiting for you at
the gate of the school. (3) Nobody __w_a_n_t_s__ (want) to go there . (4) None of the books ___a_re_/_is____ (be) easy
enough for us. (5)Neither of them ___h_a_s___ (have) already
told me about it. (6)Either of the answers ____is____ (be) right.
all most some half a part the rest a lot of plenty of
of + noun (pronoun)
2.All of them come/comes from different countries. 1.Some of the milk is / are being poured out .
1)A lot of students _a_r_e_(be) waiting outside .
2)Three-fourths of the surface of the earth__i_s__ (be) sea.
3)40 percent of the students in our class _a_r_e__ (be) girls.
4)The rest of us __a_r_e___ (be) having dinner.
5)The rest of milk _h_a_s_ (have) gone bad. 6)Most of the students __a_r_e__ interested
in playing games 7)Most of the work _h_a_s__(have) been
a group noun
a single group
or unit 指一个整体
a number of
Band of brother
1.Band of brother _i_s__(is/are) from Korea. 2. (Is /Are) __A_r_e_the band singing ?
Group noun– 集合名词 band, crowd, class, dozen, family, public, staff, government, audience, team, group, class, army
1.His family _i_s__ (be) very large. His family_a_r_e_ (be) all music lovers.
2.This group __is__ (be) made of ten people. Our group _a_r_e_(be) reading the book.
3.The class __i_s__made up of 54 students .
All the class _h_a_v_e_gone to the playground .
United States, the New Times, Arabian Nights等，谓动要用单数。
1. Aids _is__ (is/are)
a deadly disease.
2. All the goods b_e_l_o_n_g (belong) to me.
名词如trousers, pants, shorts, glasses, scissors, congratulations, belongs, clothes,
goods, remains, earnings, police, cattle, people 等做主语，谓动要用复数；但当其中有些名词前 有a/the pair of修饰时，谓动用单数。
1. H__a_s(Have/Has) your classmate finished the work? 2. She felt 2 years _(was/were) a short time in her life 3. Collecting stamps _i_s_ (is/are) his favorite pastime. 4. _H__a_s_ (Have/Has) all of the cake been eaten up? 5. __Is___ ( Is /Are) your family a big one? 6. All my family _g_e_t get/gets up early in the morning 7. The remains of the city _w_e__re_ (was/were)
destroyed in World War Two .
1.All their belongings _w__e_re__ (be) destroyed in the earthquake.
2.The police _a_r_e_ (be) searching the house for the thief.
3.The people of northern Canada _a_re__ (be) called Inuit(因纽特人).
4.The cattle __a_re___ (be) feeding in the field. 5. There __i_s__ (be) a pair of shoes in the box. 6.The pair of glasses __f_it_s__ (fit) you well.
The new shoes __w_e_r_e_ (be) sent to the old men.
The verb agrees with the subject closest to it.(就近原则)
1. Either the team leader or the guides ___a_re__ (is / are) looking after the students.
2. Neither my brothers nor my sister _g_e_ts__ (get/gets) up late every morning.
not only … but also…; not…but…; … or …; either…or…; neither…nor; there is/are…
1.Not only the teacher but also her
family _w_e_r_e_ friendly.
2.Neither you nor he _is__ right.
3.Jane or John _i_s_ to blame. 4.You or he ___is____ (be) to blame．
__A__re___ (be) you or he to blame?
5.There ___is___ (be) a book and three
pens on the desk.
1. Neither my wife nor I myself ____ able to persuade
my daughter to change her mind．
2. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of
having one examination after another．
3. Not the teacher，but the students ____ looking
forward to seeing the film．
当主语由 as well as, along with, together
with, rather than, such as , but, besides,except , in addition to, like,
including 等词连接时，其谓动的单复数 形式通常由这些词语前的名词来决定。
1. Nobody but Betty and Mary ____ late for class
A. was B. were C. has been D. have been
2. A woman with some children ____ soon．
A. is coming B. are coming C. has come D. have come 3. No one except my parents ____ anything about this。
A. know B. knows C. is known D. are known
4. The teacher as well as the students ____ the book
A. has read B. have read C. are reading D. is reading
5. All but one ____ in the accident．
A. was killed
B. were killed
C. will be killed
D. are killed
1. She as well as the other students __h_a_s__le_a_r_n_e_d_____ (learn) how to type.
2. Our school, with some few schools, ___w__a_s_b_u_i_lt_____(build) in the 1950s.
3. A professor , together with some students, __w_a_s__m_o_v_e_d__in_t_o__(move) a new laboratory.
4. All but one _w__e_r_e___(be) in the reading-
room just now. 5. Books，such as this ___a_re____(be) helpful for
1. He was one of the students who __w__e_re___ (be) late for class this morning.
2. He was the one of the students who ___w__a_s__ (be) late for class this morning.
3. He was the only one of the students who ___w__a_s__ (be) late for class this morning.
4. He was only one of the students who ___w_e_r_e__ (be) late for class this morning.
1.was 2. was 3. were 4. is 5.are 6.were 7.was 8.was 9.was 10.were 11.was 12.wasn’t 13.is
1.is 2. is 3. have 4. have 5.are 6.have 7.uncover 8.matters 9.have 10.are
1.Tom and I __a_r_e____(be) going to see a film this evening.
2.The doctor and writer ___h_a_s___ (have) been here for two years.
3.There _i_s_(be) a pen and three books on the desk. 4.My family all __l_ik_e___(like) to watch TV. 5.He or she ___h_a_s__(have) gone there. 6.The news ___i_s___(be) very interesting. 7.Three days __is____(be) not enough for us. 8.Neither of us _e_n_j_o_y_s_(enjoy) climbing the tree. 9.Every door and every window __i_s____be) to be
10. Tom's new trousers ___a_re____(be) blue.
11.None _w__e_re__(be) late for school yester day.
12.A cart and horse __i_s___(be) coming. 13.Tom，like Mary and Rose, __h_a_s___(have) an
14.One of the windows __i_s_____(be) closed. 15.All of my hope __i_s_____(be) gone. 16.Everything __g_o_e_s___(go) well with me. 17.Doing morning exercises _i_s_____(be) good
for your health.
18.What he said __s_o_u_n_d_s_(sound) reasonable 19.In the boat ___a_re____(be) three young men. 20.“I” ___is_____(be) the ninth letter.